Sanhedrin and the Death of Jesus

Sanhedrin Definition
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The Great Sanhedrin (also spelled Sanhedrim) was the supreme council, or court, in ancient Israel--there were also smaller religious Sanhedrins in every town in Israel, but they were all supervised by the Great Sanhedrin. The Great Sanhedrin was comprised of 71 sages--plus the high priest, who served as its president. The members came from the chief priests, scribes, and elders, but there is no record on how they were chosen.

The Sanhedrin and the Crucifixion of Jesus

During the time of Roman governors such as Pontius Pilate, the Sanhedrin had jurisdiction only over the province of Judea. The Sanhedrin had its own police force that could arrest people, as they did Jesus Christ. While the Sanhedrin heard both civil and criminal cases and could impose the death penalty, in New Testament times it did not have the authority to execute convicted criminals. That power was reserved for the Romans, which explains why Jesus was crucified—a Roman punishment—rather than stoned, according to Mosaic law.

The Great Sanhedrin was the final authority on Jewish law, and any scholar who went against its decisions was put to death as a  rebellious elder, or "zaken mamre."

Caiaphas was the high priest or president of the Sanhedrin at the time of Jesus' trial and execution. As a Sadducee, Caiaphas did not believe in the resurrection. He would have been shocked when Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead. Not interested in the truth, Caiaphas preferred to destroy this challenge to his beliefs instead of supporting it.

The Great Sanhedrin was comprised not only of Sadducees but also of Pharisees, but it was abolished with the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple in 66-70 A.D. Attempts to form Sanhedrins have occurred in modern times but have failed.

Bible Verses About the Sanhedrin

Matthew 26:57-59
Those who had arrested Jesus took him to Caiaphas the high priest, where the teachers of the law and the elders had assembled. But Peter followed him at a distance, right up to the courtyard of the high priest. He entered and sat down with the guards to see the outcome.

The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for false evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death.

Mark 14:55
The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death, but they did not find any.

Acts 6:12-15
So they stirred up the people and the elders and the teachers of the law. They seized Stephen and brought him before the Sanhedrin. They produced false witnesses, who testified, "This fellow never stops speaking against this holy place and against the law. For we have heard him say that this Jesus of Nazareth will destroy this place and change the customs Moses handed down to us."

All who were sitting in the Sanhedrin looked intently at Stephen, and they saw that his face was like the face of an angel.

(The information in this article is compiled and summarized from The New Compact Bible Dictionary, edited by T. Alton Bryant.)

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Zavada, Jack. "Sanhedrin." Learn Religions, Jan. 26, 2021, Zavada, Jack. (2021, January 26). Sanhedrin. Retrieved from Zavada, Jack. "Sanhedrin." Learn Religions. (accessed June 2, 2023).