Mabon History: The Second Harvest

A colorful variety of pumpkins.
Kevin Reid / Getty Images

Two days a year, the Northern and Southern hemispheres receive the same amount of sunlight. Not only that, but each receives the same amount of light as they do dark—this is because the Earth is tilted at a right angle to the sun, and the sun is directly over the equator. In Latin, the word equinox translates to "equal night." The autumn equinox, or Mabon, takes place on or near September 21, and its spring counterpart falls around March 21. If you're in the Northern hemisphere, the days will begin getting shorter after the autumn equinox and the nights will grow longer—in the Southern hemisphere, the reverse is true.

Global Traditions

The idea of a harvest festival is nothing new. In fact, people have celebrated it for millennia, all around the world. In ancient Greece, Oschophoria was a festival held in the fall to celebrate the harvesting of grapes for wine. In the 1700's, the Bavarians came up with Oktoberfest, which actually begins in the last week of September, and it was a time of great feasting and merriment, still in existence today. China's Mid-Autumn festival is celebrated on the night of the Harvest Moon, and is a festival of honoring family unity.

Official U.S. Holiday

Although the U.S. holiday of Thanksgiving falls in November, many cultures see the second harvest time of the fall equinox as a time of giving thanks. After all, it's when you figure out how well your crops did, how fat your animals have gotten, and whether or not your family will be able to eat during the coming winter. However, by the end of November, there's not a whole lot left to harvest. Initially, the Thanksgiving holiday in the U.S. was celebrated on October 3, which makes a lot more sense agriculturally.

In 1863, Abraham Lincoln issued his "Thanksgiving Proclamation", which changed the date to the last Thursday in November. In 1939, Franklin Delano Roosevelt adjusted it yet again, making it the second-to-last Thursday, in the hopes of boosting post-Depression holiday sales. Unfortunately, all this did was confuse people. Two years later, Congress finalized it, saying that the fourth Thursday of November would be Thanksgiving each year.

Wampanoag Celebrations

The Wampanoag are the Indigenous Peoples of Plymouth and the surrounding area of New England. Giving thanks to the Creator and expressing gratitude continues to be a part of daily life in Wampanoag culture, but they also have several celebrations of thanks that long predate the arrival of the colonists and the meal that prompted the myth of the "first Thanksgiving":

"In addition to daily thanks there have always been set times for celebration that coincided with changes of season and harvests times. Our New Year comes at the Spring planting time. Summer is celebrated with Strawberry Thanksgiving, at the time when the first wild berry ripens. Green Bean Harvest and Green Corn Harvest come at mid-summer. Cranberry Harvest celebrates the ripening of the last wild berry. A ceremony is held around the time of Winter solstice as well. The harvest celebrations are held after the work has been completed."

Symbols of the Season

The harvest is a time of thanks and also a time of balance—after all, there are equal hours of daylight and darkness. While we celebrate the gifts of the earth, we also accept that the soil is dying. We have food to eat, but the crops are brown and going dormant. Warmth is behind us, cold lies ahead.

Some symbols of Mabon include:

  • Mid-autumn vegetables, like squashes, eggplant, pumpkins, and gourds
  • Apples and anything made from them, such as cider, pies, applesauce, apple butter, and dried apples
  • Seeds, nuts, and seed pods
  • Baskets, symbolizing the gathering of crops; bushel baskets are easy to find if you live in an agricultural region with a lot of orchards nearby
  • Sickles, scythes, and other harvesting tools
  • Grapes, vines, and wine

You can use any of these to decorate your home or your altar at Mabon.

Feasting and Friends

Early agricultural societies understood the importance of hospitality—it was crucial to develop a relationship with your neighbors because they might be the ones to help you when your family ran out of food. Many people, particularly in rural villages, celebrated the harvest with great deals of feasting, drinking, and eating. After all, bread, beer, and wine had been made and the cattle brought down from the summer pastures for the coming winter. Celebrate Mabon yourself with a feast —and the bigger, the better!

Magic and Mythology

Nearly all of the myths and legends popular at this time of the year focus on the themes of life, death, and rebirth. Not much of a surprise, when you consider that this is the time at which the earth begins to die before winter sets in!

Demeter and Her Daughter

Perhaps the best known of all the harvest mythologies is the story of Demeter and Persephone. Demeter was a goddess of grain and of the harvest in ancient Greece. Her daughter, Persephone, caught the eye of Hades, god of the underworld. When Hades abducted Persephone and took her back to the underworld, Demeter's grief caused the crops on Earth to die and go dormant. By the time she finally recovered her daughter, Persephone had eaten six pomegranate seeds, and so was doomed to spend six months of the year in the underworld. These six months are when the earth dies, beginning at the time of the autumn equinox.

Inanna Takes on the Underworld

The Sumerian goddess Inanna is the incarnation of fertility and abundance. Inanna descended into the underworld where her sister, Ereshkigal, ruled. Erishkigal decreed that Inanna could only enter her world in the traditional ways—stripping herself of her clothing and earthly possessions. By the time Inanna got there, Erishkigal had unleashed a series of plagues upon her sister, killing Inanna. While Inanna was visiting the underworld, the earth ceased to grow and produce. A vizier restored Inanna to life and sent her back to Earth. As she journeyed home, the earth was restored to its former glory.

Modern Celebrations

For contemporary Druids, this is the celebration of Alban Elfed, which is a time of balance between the light and the dark. Many Asatru groups honor the fall equinox as Winter Nights, a festival sacred to Freyr.

For most Wiccans and NeoPagans, this is a time of community and kinship. It's not uncommon to find a Pagan Pride Day celebration tied in with Mabon. Often, PPD organizers include a food drive as part of the festivities, to celebrate the bounty of the harvest and share with the less fortunate.

If you choose to celebrate Mabon, give thanks for the things you have and take time to reflect on the balance within your own life, honoring both the darkness and the light. Invite your friends and family over for a feast, and count the blessings that you have among kin and community.

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Your Citation
Wigington, Patti. "Mabon History: The Second Harvest." Learn Religions, Apr. 5, 2023, Wigington, Patti. (2023, April 5). Mabon History: The Second Harvest. Retrieved from Wigington, Patti. "Mabon History: The Second Harvest." Learn Religions. (accessed June 2, 2023).