Profile of Sikh Guru Arjun Dev (1563—1606)

Golden Temple Darbar Sahib and Akal Takhat
Golden Temple Darbar Sahib and Akal Takhat. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Guru Arjun Dev was born May 2, 1620 A.D. His mother Bibi Bhani was the youngest daughter of Third Guru Amar Das. Arjun Dev's father Jetha had no family of his own and was devoted to Bibi Bhani's father. The couple chose to live with the guru, and so Arjun Dev was raised in his maternal grandfather’s household. Guru Amar Das appointed Jetha to succeed him as fourth guru and renamed him Fourth Guru Raam Das. Arjun Dev had two older brothers, Prithi Chand and Maha Dev. The eldest brother aspired through trickery to become the fifth guru. However, devotion and steadfast service earned Arjun Dev the succession and title of fifth guru. Fifth Guru Arjun Dev wed Ram Devi who died without bearing a child. At his mother's urging, Guru Arjun Dev remarried and wed Ganga, the daughter of Krishan Chand. She obtained the Blessing of Baba Buddha and gave birth to one son, Har Govind, who eventually succeeded his father as sixth guru.


Arjun Dev worked beside his father, Guru Raam Das, who founded the spiritual compound, "Harmandir Sahib," or "Temple of God," and began excavation of the manmade lake, "Amritsar," which means "immortal waters." After the death of Guru Raam Das, Guru Arjun Dev carried on the task begun by his predecessors to complete construction of what is today commonly known as the Golden Temple and the moat-like Sarovar of sacred waters surrounding it.


Guru Arjun Dev wrote poetic scripture in the form of hymns praising the divine and extolling the virtues that the Sikh gurus exemplified. He penned 7,500 lines of poetic inspirational verse in all. He compiled the sacred songs and poems of earlier Sikh gurus, Hindu bhagats and Muslim pirs, and bound them together with his own inspirational compositions to create the texts of the Adi Granth. He installed the holy scripture in Harmandir Sahib. The Adi Granth makes up the major portion of Sikhism's eternal holy scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib.

Other Contributions to Sikhism

Guru Arjun Dev continued the tradition of langar, sacred free food from the guru’s kitchen, where worshipers sat side by side to eat regardless of caste or rank. He established a system for gathering and collecting dasvand, a tenth part of earnings, or tithe, to be donated as goods, community service, or cash. He sent representatives known as masands around the country to preach, teach, and collect offerings to be used locally in the free kitchen.


Prithi Chand's jealousy and lust for power led to treachery, and he conspired with Mughals to bring charges against Guru Arjun Dev. When ordered by Mughal rulers to change a passage of scripture referencing Islam, Guru Arjun Dev refused and became the first Sikh martyr. Enduring five days of unrelenting torture, he achieved martyrdom at the hands of 17th century fundamentalist Muslim rulers who sought to put an end to the spread of Sikhism. Guru Arjun Dev's martyrdom set an inspiring example of selflessness and steadfast courage in the face of overwhelming oppression

Important Dates and Corresponding Events

Dates correspond to the Nanakshahi calendar.

  • Birth: Goindwal – May 2, 1563. Arjun Dev (Arjan Dev) is born to mother, Bibi Bhani and father, Guru Raam Das Sodhi.
  • Marriage: 1589. Arjun Dev first weds Ram (Dai) Devi, daughter of Bhai Chandan Dass Suri of village Maurh. Because of jealousies resulting in treachery, she expires without issue. Guru Arjun Dev later weds Ganga, daughter of Krishan Chand of Meo near Phillaur of Jalandhar. Mata Ganga also has difficulty with miscarriages. With the blessing of Baba Buddha, the couple at last produce one son, Har Govind (July 5, 1595 - March 19, 1644) Attempts are made on the infant's life, but he survives.
  • Inauguration as Guru: Goindwal – September 16, 1581, Passing over his elder sons, Guru Raam Das appoints his youngest son, Arjun Dev, his successor.
  • Completes Amritsar: 1604, Guru Arjun Dev completes construction of the Sarovar and the building of Harmandir Sahib, known as the Golden Temple in present-day Amritsar, India.
  • Death: Lahore of modern-day Pakistan – June 16, 1606. Guru Arjun Dev is martyred at the hand of the Mughals and names his son, Har Govind, to be his successor.
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Your Citation
Khalsa, Sukhmandir. "Profile of Sikh Guru Arjun Dev (1563—1606)." Learn Religions, Aug. 26, 2020, Khalsa, Sukhmandir. (2020, August 26). Profile of Sikh Guru Arjun Dev (1563—1606). Retrieved from Khalsa, Sukhmandir. "Profile of Sikh Guru Arjun Dev (1563—1606)." Learn Religions. (accessed May 29, 2023).