Eastern Orthodox Church Beliefs and Practices

Eastern Orthodox Beliefs
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The word "orthodox" means "right believing" and was adopted to signify the true religion that faithfully followed the beliefs and practices defined by the first seven ecumenical councils (dating back to the first ten centuries). Eastern Orthodoxy claims to have fully preserved, without any deviation, the traditions, and doctrines of the early Christian church established by the apostles. Adherents believe themselves to be the only true and "right believing" Christian faith.

Eastern Orthodox Beliefs Vs. Roman Catholic

The primary dispute that led to the split between Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism centered around Rome's deviation from the original conclusions of the seven ecumenical councils, such as the claim to a universal papal supremacy.

Another particular conflict is known as the Filioque Controversy. The Latin word filioque means "and from the Son." It had been inserted into the Nicene Creed during the 6th century, thus changing the phrase pertaining to the origin of the Holy Spirit from "who proceeds from the Father" to "who proceeds from the Father and the Son." It had been added to emphasize Christ's divinity, but Eastern Christians not only objected to the altering of anything produced by the first ecumenical councils, but they also disagreed with its new meaning. Eastern Christians believe both the Spirit and the Son have their origin in the Father.

Eastern Orthodoxy Vs. Protestantism

A clear distinction between Eastern Orthodoxy and Protestantism is the concept of "Sola Scriptura." This "Scripture alone" doctrine held by Protestant faiths asserts that the Word of God can be clearly understood and interpreted by the individual believer and is sufficient on its own to be the final authority in Christian doctrine. Orthodoxy argues that the Holy Scriptures (as interpreted and defined by church teachings in the first seven ecumenical councils) along with Holy Tradition are of equal value and importance.

Eastern Orthodox Beliefs Vs. Western Christianity

A less apparent distinction between Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Christianity is their differing theological approaches, which is, perhaps, merely the result of cultural influences. The Eastern mindset is inclined toward philosophy, mysticism, and ideology, whereas the Western outlook is guided more by a practical and legal mentality. This can be seen in the subtly different ways that Eastern and Western Christians approach spiritual truth. Orthodox Christians believe that truth must be personally experienced and, as a result, they place less emphasis on its precise definition.

Worship is the center of church life in Eastern Orthodoxy. It is highly liturgical, embracing seven sacraments and characterized by a priestly and mystical nature. Veneration of icons and a mystical form of meditative prayer are commonly incorporated into religious rituals.

Eastern Orthodox Church Beliefs

  • Authority of Scripture: The Holy Scriptures (as interpreted and defined by church teaching in the first seven ecumenical councils) along with Holy Tradition are of equal value and importance.
  • Baptism: Baptism is the initiator of the salvation experience. Eastern Orthodox practice baptism by full immersion.
  • Eucharist: The Eucharist is the center of worship. Eastern Orthodox believe that during the Eucharist adherents partake mystically of Christ's body and blood and through it receive his life and strength.
  • Holy Spirit: The Holy Spirit is one of the persons of the Trinity, who proceeds from the Father and is one in essence with the Father. The Holy Spirit is given by Christ as a gift to the church, to empower for service, to place God's love in our hearts, and to impart spiritual gifts for the Christian life and witness.
  • Jesus Christ: Jesus Christ is the second person of the Trinity, God's Son, fully divine and fully human. He became flesh through Mary but was without sin. He died on the cross as man's Savior. He resurrected and ascended to heaven. He will return to judge all men.
  • Mary: Mary has supreme grace and is to be highly honored, but they reject the doctrine of Immaculate Conception.
  • Predestination: God has foreknowledge of man's destiny, but he does not predestine him.
  • Saints and Icons: Orthodox Christians practice veneration of icons; reverence is directed toward the person they represent and not the relics themselves.
  • Salvation: Salvation is a gradual, life-long process by which Christians become more and more like Christ. This requires faith in Jesus Christ, working through love.
  • The Trinity: There are three persons in the Godhead, each divine, distinct, and equal. The Father God is the eternal head; the Son is begotten of the Father; the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father.


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Fairchild, Mary. "Eastern Orthodox Church Beliefs and Practices." Learn Religions, Aug. 26, 2020, learnreligions.com/eastern-orthodox-church-beliefs-700622. Fairchild, Mary. (2020, August 26). Eastern Orthodox Church Beliefs and Practices. Retrieved from https://www.learnreligions.com/eastern-orthodox-church-beliefs-700622 Fairchild, Mary. "Eastern Orthodox Church Beliefs and Practices." Learn Religions. https://www.learnreligions.com/eastern-orthodox-church-beliefs-700622 (accessed June 10, 2023).