Book of Joel

Introduction to the Book of Joel

Book of Joel
The prophet Joel by Michelangelo. Public Domain

Book of Joel:

"The day of the Lord is coming!"

The book of Joel echoed a warning of approaching judgment, when God would punish the wicked and reward the faithful.

By the millions they swarmed over Israel, starving locusts, gorging themselves on every plant in sight. Joel described them destroying wheat and barley crops, stripping trees down to their bark, ruining grape vines so no wine offerings could be made to the Lord. The once lush countryside quickly became a wasteland.

Joel called the people to repent of their sin and begged them to put on sackcloth and ashes. He foretold of a mighty army, driving down from the north on the day of the Lord. Defenses failed against them. Like the locusts, they devastated the land.

"Return to the LORD your God," Joel cried, "for he is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and abounding in love, and he relents from sending calamity." (Joel 2:13, NIV)

God promised to restore Israel, once again turning it into a land of plenty. He said he would pour out his Spirit upon the people. In those days the Lord will judge the nations, Joel said, and he will dwell among his people.

According to the apostle Peter, this prophecy of Joel was fulfilled 800 years later at Pentecost, following the sacrificial death and resurrection of Jesus Christ (Acts 2:14-24).

Author of the Book of Joel:

The prophet Joel, son of Pethuel.

Date Written:

Between 835 - 796 BC.

Written To:

The people of Israel and all later Bible readers.

Landscape of the Book of Joel:


Themes in Joel:

God is just, punishing sin. However, God is also merciful, offering forgiveness to those who repent. The day of the Lord, a term used by other prophets, figures prominently in Joel. While the godless have much to fear when the Lord comes, believers can rejoice because their sins have been forgiven.

Points of Interest:

  • One of the 12 minor prophets, Joel penned most of his 73-verse book in the form of a poem. His name means "Yahweh is God."
  • Locusts are similar to grasshoppers and can congregate in swarms of millions of insects, stripping bare crops, trees, and grass in their path. Both in ancient times and today, there was no way to stop them when they hit.
  • Bible scholars are divided over the meaning of the locusts in Joel. Some consider them symbolic of an approaching army while others think they were an actual plague of insects.
  • Joel mentions a blood moon (2:31), the subject of recent books predicting upcoming judgment, also mentioned in Acts 2:20 as an omen of the day of the Lord.

Key Verses:

Joel 1:15
For the day of the LORD is near; it will come like destruction from the Almighty.  (NIV)

Joel 2:28
“And afterward, I will pour out my Spirit on all people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your old men will dream dreams, your young men will see visions." (NIV)

Joel 3:16
The LORD will roar from Zion and thunder from Jerusalem; the earth and the sky will tremble. But the LORD will be a refuge for his people, a stronghold for the people of Israel. (NIV)

Outline of the Book of Joel:

  • Locusts invade Israel, signaling the coming day of the Lord. (1:1-20)
  • A foreign army thunders in to deliver God's punishment. (2:1-17)
  • Ever merciful, God restores Israel. (2:18-32)
  • God judges the nations then dwells among his people. (3:1-21)

Jack Zavada, a career writer and contributor for, is host to a Christian website for singles. Never married, Jack feels that the hard-won lessons he has learned may help other Christian singles make sense of their lives. His articles and ebooks offer great hope and encouragement. To contact him or for more information, visit Jack's Bio Page.